We test your sample for allergy reactions using an in-vitro testing system which measures a raised IgE antibody reaction. On arrival at our laboratory, our technicians collate the samples and extract analytes from the dried blood spots after reconstituting the blood. Your processed sample is then exposed to a panel of food and environmental allergen items. If a reaction is recorded during the testing, your results will be classed as positive, and indicate an allergy which will be documented on your results.
The response of the antibody to an item is an indictor of an allergy symptom. These reactions can vary significantly and present in your body through tissue or organs, which in turn leaves to discomfort, pain, and in some cases, damage. Your results and the data contained within them can be used to consult with your GP, specialist or immunologist.
There are a wide number of scientific studies that support the link between raised IgE levels and allergies which are available both online and through scientific journals. We have provided summarised copies of published articles related to this field.
Ramona A. Hoh et al. Origins and clonal convergence of gastrointestinal IgE+ B cells in human peanut allergy, Science Immunology (2020)
B cells in human food allergy have been studied predominantly in the blood. Little is known about IgE+ B cells or plasma cells in tissues exposed to dietary antigens. We characterized IgE+ clones in blood, stomach, duodenum, and esophagus of 19 peanut-allergic patients, using high-throughput DNA sequencing. IgE+ cells in allergic patients are enriched in stomach and duodenum, and have a plasma cell phenotype. Clonally related IgE+ and non-IgE–expressing cell frequencies in tissues suggest local isotype switching, including transitions between IgA and IgE isotypes. Highly similar antibody sequences specific for peanut allergen Ara h 2 are shared between patients, indicating that common immunoglobulin genetic rearrangements may contribute to pathogenesis. These data define the gastrointestinal tract as a reservoir of IgE+ B lineage cells in food allergy.
Food Allergy – Alessandro Fiocchi, MD and Vincenzo Fierro, MD (2017 WHO)
…The definitions and concepts of allergic and hypersensitivity conditions beyond the allergy community have often created misunderstanding. For an optimal clarification:
- the term “atopy” is used when individuals have an IgE sensitization as documented by IgE antibodies in serum or by a positive skin prick test;
- “hypersensitivity” is defined as “conditions clinically resembling allergy that cause objectively reproducible symptoms or signs, initiated by exposure to a defined stimulus at a dose tolerated by normal subjects”, and
- “allergy” is defined “a hypersensitivity reaction initiated by proven or strongly suspected immunologic mechanisms”…
IgE in Clinical Allergy and Allergy Diagnosis
…A fairly good knowledge exists about the various steps in the allergic reaction, but despite present knowledge, the prevalence of allergic diseases is still increasing. In some areas of the industrialized world up to 50% of the population is affected. More efforts must be dedicated to the understanding of allergic sensitization and how it can be prevented. The identification of the pathological role of IgE and the subsequent release of inflammatory mediators and cytokines has enabled physicians to treat allergic symptoms with regard to the underlying immunological mechanisms. New pharmacotherapy in the form of a humanized monoclonal anti-IgE antibody designed to eliminate IgE may have a valuable role in treating IgE sensitized individuals.
Quantitative IgE antibody assays in allergic diseases
…During the past several years, immunoassays for specific IgE antibodies have been refined to permit reporting results in mass units. Thus quantitative immunoassays for IgE antibodies may be an adjunct to skin tests. In cases of food allergy among children with atopic dermatitis, cutoff values for IgE antibody concentrations to egg, milk, peanut, and fish have been derived to provide 95% positive and 90% negative predictive values. Food-specific IgE antibody determinations can also be used to predict which food allergies are resolving spontaneously…
Utility of food-specific IgE concentrations in predicting symptomatic food allergy
…One hundred children (62% male; median age, 3.8 years; range, 0.4-14.3 years) were evaluated for food allergy. The diagnosis of food allergy was established by means of history or oral food challenge. On the basis of the previously established 95% predictive decision points for egg, milk, peanut, and fish allergy, greater than 95% of food allergies diagnosed in this prospective study were correctly identified by quantifying serum food-specific IgE concentrations…
A follow‐up study of children with food allergy. Clinical course in relation to serum IgE‐ and IgG‐antibody levels to milk, egg and fish
Eighty‐two children with food sensitivity were followed‐up for 2‐5 years. Most children showed a decreasing sensitivity and the clinical course of food allergy seemed to reflect the course of the humoral immune responses to the offending foods. The occurrence of IgE‐ and IgG‐antibodies parallelled in most cases. However, an early, high IgG/IgE food antibody ratio seemed to be a good prognostic sign, indicating a possible blocking capacity of IgG‐antibodies.